HISTORY

 

When studying Palma del Río’s history we have to take into account that it is necessary to distinguish between, on the one hand, what we can strictly call the history of the nucleus of population which, with various modifications and extensions, we know nowadays, and, on the other hand, the history of the occupation by mankind of this lands.

 

           

 

 

Prehistoria

 

The historic stages that followed the first moments of the occupation of these territories can be found, at present, surrounded by certain darkness due to the lack of data we possess regarding the Paleolithic and the Neolithic eras. The same cannot be said about the first moments of the use of metals. The Calcolítico, or period in which the copper is worked, was present in our town. By the year 3000 B.C., huge changes in the lifestyle of mankind can be observed.
Tras la Edad del Cobre, el bronce también fue utilizado por estos grupos de población dispersa del valle medio del Guadalquivir.

                 

 

 

                                       prehis

 

 

 

                            

 

 

 

Protohistoria

 

After the massive usage of copper, the use of bronze was soon developed generally.  Phoenicians and Greeks kept stable relationships with the inhabitants of the area. The Turdetana culture was an accurate reflection of what we are saying. Important nucleus of population flourished then. Deposits like La Saetilla, inside our municipality, are a good example of this.

                                      

 

                      Proto

 

 

           

  

Edad Antigua

 

After the Roman conquest, the economic peak that the Valle del Guadalquivir (area that goes from west to east crossing the province of Córdoba, following the flow of the Guadalquivir River) experimented, above all from the first century before Christ, was spectacular.
In the riverbanks of Betis (Guadalquivir) River and of the Síngilis (Genil) River, some rests of many clay containers, quays, large agricultural exploitations, and etcetera were found.

 

 

   Antigua                

 
           

 

 

 

 

Edad Media

 


With the fall of the Visigoth Empire (711 B.C.) the Muslim invasion takes place. The area of Palma del Río started to be considered within the Cora de Córdoba. A tribe coming from Tunisia, called Al – Sadif, settled in its lands, or near them. The first documented mention of the existence of Palma del Río as an urban nucleus of reduced dimensions appears in the year 855. The village receives the name of Balma. Little by little, this little nucleus developed into a bigger village.

In the XIth century, the alcazaba, or castle, was built. Nowadays, we still preserve some of the towers that composed the castle. In the XIIth century, the walls were built to defend the village from the frequent Christian invasions.

In the year 1241, the troops under the command of D. Alfonso, Infante de Molina, by order of his brother, King Fernando IIII conquered Palma del Río. However, a large amount of the inhabitants continued to live in the village.

By the year 1342, the village became a feudal estate under the government of the Bocanegra, a family coming from Geneva thanks to a favour conceded to Micer Egidio Bocanegra (admiral of Castilla) by the king in recognition of the military services rendered to the crown.

In the middle of the XIVth century, existed in Palma a Moorish quarter, inhabited by Muslims coming from the Castilian city of Gumiel. By the middle of the next century, the village will end up being one of the most inhabited ones in Andalusia having around 120 families, in comparison with Córdoba or Seville that had 40 or 50 families inhabiting them. By this time, Palma del Rio counted with a very important population of Jewish and converts due to a big emigration after the attacks that took place in Córdoba against them. They were expelled in the year 1492. In 1483, the village was attacked by the Muslims. The battle resulted in their defeat in the hands of the defenders of the city who were under the command of D. Luis Portocarrero, Lord of Palma del Río. In order to enter the city, the Muslims set on fire one of the entrances to the village. This entrance is known nowadays as Arquito Quemado.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     
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Edad Moderna

 

 

Some years later, in 1507, the feudal estate of Palma del Río became a county, being appointed as the first count of Palma del Río Luis Portocarrero. The castle was abandoned as the habitual residence of lords and, inside the walls of the city, was built the Palace of the Counts.

The population of Palma del Río dropped off exponentially. By 1675, the village had 2500 inhabitants. However, a century later, the population was below 100 people. In 1840, the village had 625 houses, 41 streets, a main square, 4 small squares and 500 inhabitants. On 31 January 1888 the Queen Regent María Cristina de Hagsburgo – Lorena conceded the title of city to Palma del Río.

 

 

 

    Historia2

 

 

           

Edad Contemporánea

 

Between 1910 and 1936, Palma del Río became a very important city for the working class movement and the Freemasonry. The Lodge of Light and Prosperity, created in Cordoba, was the most important freemason focus of the Vega del Guadalquivir (Region of Andalusia located between the provinces of Seville and Córdoba and formed by the towns that are situated in the proximities of Guadalquivir River).


In the general election of 1936, the candidacy of the Frente Popular obtained an absolute majority. Between the 19th and the 20th February of the same year, some confrontations took place among the population when they were celebrating the victory of the Frente Popular. Palma del Río, then, fell into the hands of the national troops that arrived from Écija in command of General Baturones. This happened in the morning of the 27th August 1936. During that day and the following day, numerous executions by firing squads took place. During the years after the war, Palma del Río suffered seriously its consequences.


During the XXth, the city of Palma del Río was very important for the Labour Movement, the Left-Wing Party and the Freemasonry forming even revolutionary committees to fight against the troops of General Franco. After the long dictatorship of General Franco, democracy was recovered in 1977 with the first elections. In 1978, the inhabitants of the city voted in favour of the first democratic constitution and in 1979 the municipal elections were recovered.


35 years of municipal democracy have allowed an evident change in our city. We can highlight, firstly, the urban infrastructures that have modernise the main streets of our city as well as the creation of new neighbourhoods to respond to the urgent housing demands. This urban development has been completed with the construction of various industrial areas that contribute to the growth of the food and agricultural industry, growth that has forced on the one hand, the construction of a new ring road with a doubled arched bridge above the Guadalquivir River and on the other hand, to the construction of new accesses to the different growing areas in Palma del Río.


Democracy has promoted a cultural awareness in our city.  In this sense, Palma del Río has been equipped with a theatre (Theatre Coliseo), framework for reference to the Feria de Teatro en el Sur, and the recovery of cultural spaces as the culture house, the youth house, the convent of Santa Clara, the local museums as well as the social involvement with the construction of the multipurpose services building Los Bombos and other installations distributed along the city.


Economically speaking, there has been an important growth in the exploitation of citrus fruits and the food and agriculture industry. The services sector has also experienced a noticeable expansion. The tourist sector is in process of formation.


Finally, politically speaking, Palma del Río has had a certain stability considering that since 1979, election after election; the vast majority of inhabitants have approved the arrangements of the Socialist party. Since 1979, our city has had as Majors Manuel López Maraver, Salvador Blanco Rubio y José Antonio Ruiz Almenara. 

 

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